Monthly Archives: September 2013

Tips to Improve English

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Most students are fluent in their native languages but with a language like English that is not the case. Some students are able to write English but when it comes to conversing in English these individuals tend to falter due to lack of confidence. To build your confidence in the English language here are some fun tips which have proved to be effective.

Tips to improve english

Tip 1 Watch Television in English: we all spend time watching our favorite soaps in our native languages, why don’t we take out time to watch programs in English. Most of us have a cable Television with access to about 60 English channels so spending 15 minutes per day to watch these channels isn’t much. You can also watch English news channels as these are informative and keep us in touch with what is happening in different parts of the world.

Tip 2 Watch English Movies with English soundtracks and English subtitles: the more you expose yourself to the English language the better you will become at it. By watching English movies you will be able to learn the language in a fun way. While watching pay attention to the pronunciation of the words and the stress given to the syllables. The stress is usually given to the vowels in the syllables. For instance beGIN, elBOW,  HAPpy etc.

Tip 3 Read English Newspapers: you can read the headlines, the lifestyle and scan the business section. This will not only make you aware of what is happening around the world but it will also expose you to the language used in important national and international, business and pop culture.

Tip 4 Read English Books: you can read a book with easy language per month. Adults can start with teenage books like Gossip Girl, Harry Potter or the Twilight Saga Series as the language used is simple to understand, has a lot of slang terms but are good to enhance your vocabulary.

Tip 5 Listen to English music and sing along: you can listen to English music and sing along with the lyrics in front of you. Once you are familiar with a particular musician then you can listen to more of his/ her songs and it will help you to understand the accent and you can then sing along with the lyrics.  

Tip 6 Maintain a Note book: you can note down new words or phrases that you come across while watching, reading or listening. You can then find out the general meaning of the words or phrases used. If you don’t understand the words or phrases used you can look at the words surrounding them for clues or hints or you can always ask someone who is good in the language to help you.

Tip 7 Keep a dictionary beside you at all times:  after noting the words or phrases used with their meanings you can even look for the synonyms and antonyms of the new word that you have learnt. Once you have understood the meaning of the word then try to use it in a sentence, the same day. Apart from this you can look for the prefixes (un, in) and suffixes (al, ion, ness) for the word learnt. For example the word correct becomes incorrect and the word good becomes goodness. You can also explore its other forms such as the verb, noun, adjective or adverb forms as well for instance the word to beautify (verb), Beautiful (adjective), beauty (noun), beautifully (adverb). You can also pay attention to the pronunciations of words given beside the search word, even better would be if you have access to an online dictionary as you can even hear the pronunciation of the word if you have speakers.

Tip 8 Maintain a Diary:  apart from noting down the meanings and words you also need to write down a few sentences in English in the diary. After reading you can write down what you have understood from the paragraphs or articles read, you can record the events of the day or even pour your thoughts into the diary in English. When you are writing ensure that there are no spelling mistakes, grammatical errors and punctuation mistakes.

Tip 9 Do Not Hesitate: apart from the other tips conversing in English with people who are good in the language has always helped to gain confidence. Try not to hesitate when speaking as this is the only way that can help you to build confidence.

Tip 10 Improve your Grammar: A useful tool to improve your language skills is by referring to Wren & Martin. This book is a perfect guide for improving your grammar as well as your comprehension skills because it has exercises and examples for each topic. It also comes with a key that you can use to verify if your answers are correct. This book will help you to improve your grammar as it has detailed explanations for the different forms of words namely verb, noun, adjectives and adverbs. It also has information about affixes such as prefixes and suffixes, prepositions, tenses and the various forms and lots more.

Tip 11 Practice the 4 core skills: if you practice these four skills namely reading, writing, speaking and listening then you will be able to gain that confidence. The tips mentioned focus on all these areas including the activities, these tips will help you to gain confidence.

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Preparation Tips for XAT

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Evidently most Management aspirants sought after The Xavier’s Aptitude Test more commonly known as XAT after CAT. The reason being that XAT has the second largest number of institutes accepting its test score for admission (second only to the CAT of the IIM’s) into various management courses. Apart from  the regular areas that are tested such as Quantitative Ability and Data Interpretation, Verbal and Logical Ability, Analytical Reasoning and Decision Making. The XAT although similar to CAT has 2 additional sections namely The Essay Writing Section and the reintroducing of the General Awareness section in XAT only this year. However what sets the XAT apart from other entrance exams is its Decision Making section which test’s the candidate’s ability to make business decisions.

XAT preparations

Moreover, over the years the XAT has formed its own unique identity mainly because of the surprises that come up every year and students dreading them. To address the needs of students here are some   tips that can prove helpful in the preparation of XAT.

Tip 1 Verbal: The XAT is usually tough for students who aren’t confident about their command over the English Language therefore it is a challenge for most individuals. Since this is a language, by default grammar is very essential. Apart from these aspects it comprises of questions on analogies, synonyms and antonyms, match the list, idioms, one word for many, fill in the blanks and identifying the various Figures of Speech which is a task for applicants.

a) Grammar: A useful tool to improve your language skills is by referring to Wren & Martin. This book is a perfect guide for improving your grammar, essay writing skills as well as your comprehension skills because it has exercises and examples for each topic. It also comes with a key that you can use to verify if your answers are correct.

b) Reading and Comprehension: you need to grab a copy of the Wren & Martin as soon as possible as it has very good examples for improving your comprehension skills. It has sample passages that contain questions on most of the aspects covered in the English section.

c) Expose yourself to the language: you can start by making use of the various resources available to you such as the internet, newspapers, journals, magazines, television, books etc. Most importantly converse with a friend who is good at the language if possible, it is the most effective way to increase your confidence. It is absolutely essential for students to make a habit of reading as this is one of the best ways to improve your language skills. Reading English newspapers, listening to English news and writing a few sentences in English will definitely help you in the long run. When you read; it not only helps you to improve your grammar but also increases your vocabulary. When you come across a word that you do not understand make it a point to open a dictionary therefore ensure that you have a dictionary nearby whenever you read something.

Tip 2 Logical Ability: when a problem is given don’t just solve it try to analyze it for 20 to 30 minutes by asking your W/H questions such as Why, What, How.

Tip 4. Analytical Reasoning & Decision Making: the reasoning section consists of questions based on logical, analytical and critical reasoning therefore they are framed accordingly. So whenever you read a passage don’t forget to put on your thinking cap and ask your W/ H questions as often as possible. Students need to practice difficult reasoning puzzles from mock papers and books on reasoning. Solving puzzles from popular puzzle books available in bookstores will also help. Focus on lengthy puzzles on distribution involving lots of variables. The section on Decision Making can be best practiced by going through the mock XAT papers.

Tip 5. Data Interpretation: this section mainly consists of questions that use bar graphs, line graphs, case lets (data given in the form of paragraphs requires applicants to extract the information provided to establish a relationship between the data given), tables, pie charts or circle graphs etc. to interpret data. Similarly the questions are based on the data that is interpreted, so break up the question and note down the information that is given to you.

Tip 6. General Knowledge: read newspapers and watch educational channels that will boost your general knowledge. A good start to improve your knowledge of India to crack this section is by visiting www.india.gov.in  which has information about the latest happenings in the country. Apart from this you can even read past issues of business magazines (from January 2012) and pay attention to the main events in the corporate world. Having information about organizations /associations like the UN and its associate agencies such as ASEAN, SAARC, NATO, BRICS etc. can help you to clear this section. Apart from this information a good knowledge about the stocks and GK questions like countries, capitals, currencies, inventions and discoveries in science can be very helpful.

Tip 7. Group Discussions:  try to be loud and aggressive in an appropriate manner, if you need to get your point across. If unclear about the topic wait for someone else to begin. Try and summarize the points that have been discussed at regular intervals.

Tip 8.  Practice: it is essential that students refer to previous years question papers and rely on mock tests, as this will make them familiar with the paper pattern and will give them an idea about the type of questions asked. Thus, students are better prepared for the examination.

Tip 9. Join Coaching classes: this will ensure that students practice regularly and are better prepared because they can resolve the queries that they might have about a particular topic.

Tip 10. Health Matters: it is important to ensure that you get enough rest, eat a balanced diet and most importantly exercise. It is important that you sleep in time, eat properly and exercise, if you wish to perform well in the examinations because both the body and the mind need to rest to function to its maximum potential.

By following these simple tips cracking the XAT will be easier to clear. I leave you with a simple quote, “practice as if you are the worst; perform as if you are the best”.

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ICWAI Preparation Tips

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ICWAI aspirants have to clear the ICWAI examinations if they wish to become Cost and Work Accountants. The ICWAI examinations are conducted by the Institute of Cost Accountants of India based on the Cost and Work Accountants Act, 1959. The ICWAI has 3 levels namely Foundation course, Intermediate Examinations and Final Course. ICWAI aspirants get anxious and excited when these examinations begin. These students tend to seek tips that can help them in their examinations so here are some tips.

ICWAI Preparation Tips | Crack ICWAI ExaminationTip 1 Know your examination details: students should have all the important information about the exam such as the dates, the syllabus, the marking system. This information will help students to better prepare for the examination.

Tip 2 Practice: for subjects like accounts and mathematics it is absolutely essential for students to be thorough with the concepts. Once students are clear with the concepts then they need to practice as much as they can. They need, “to practice as if they are the worst, but perform as if they are the best”. Applicants can only gain confidence through practice. Once they get that confidence they will be able to perform well and excel in these subjects. Refer to previous years questions papers to get familiar with the examination pattern and to find out the important topics. It is preferable to study all the topics so that you can perform better.

Tip 3 Revising and Repetition: candidates can improve their memory by using various techniques that can help them. Revising whatever one has learnt at regular intervals, repetition has proved most effective. Apart from revising the concepts studied they can even discuss the topics with their friends. Through this activity students are reassured of the matter they have studied and helps them to realize if they have any doubts, it also rectifies the information if it is incorrect.

Tip 4 Use Mnemonics: these are memorizing techniques that can definitely help students to remember concepts learnt well. These are clues that help individuals to associate the information they want to remember via images, sentences and words. Some examples of mnemonics are visual images, rhymes and alliterations, acronyms, method of Loci, chunking etc.

Tip 5 Note making and note taking: when students study it is preferable that they make note of things or concepts that are important, using stick-on notes or noting the points down in the text book beside the topic allows students to revise these topics fast. If students take notes effectively from the professor it helps in recollecting what has been taught.

Tip 6 Use Diagrams and Flow Charts: while preparing drawing diagrams such as tree diagrams or flow charts helps in organizing the matter and students derive clarity in the topics studied. This ensures that the points are learnt and memorized well.

Tip 7 Use all Senses: students should make use of all the senses while studying as this ensures that the matter is learnt completely. For instance read aloud and rewrite the points studied as this will ensure that the topic is studied. This is probably why teachers make students recite what is learnt in class.

Tip 8 Keep Distractions away: when studying it is important for students to pick a quiet place to study without any distractions. Applicants should keep cell phones away from them and restrict themselves from spending way too much time on Social Networking sites. It is important that students ensure that they focus on tasks that need to be completed rather than engage themselves in unnecessary tasks. If students insist on spending so much time on social networking sites then this is procrastinating behavior which needs to be avoided as far as possible because it affects performance.

Tip 9 Use Time Tables or Calendars: candidates should create Time Tables to allot a certain amount of times for each subject as well as for all the tasks that need to be completed on time. Making use of Calendars helps students to realize what all tasks need to be completed and by when, thus enables them to plan accordingly.

Tip 10 Health Matters: it is essential that students eat a balanced diet; get enough sleep and most importantly exercise because both the mind and body need rest and exercise refreshes students.

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Tips to Crack the SNAP Exam

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The Symbiosis National Aptitude Test, commonly known as SNAP is conducted by The Symbiosis International University. The SNAP has over the years witnessed a steady increase in applicants opting for the SNAP to gain admissions into the various B- Schools under the Symbiosis International University. The test brings with it the age old excitement as well as a new sense of anxiety as students prepare to face the SNAP. In view of the need of the hour a few tips have been devised to assist students in their preparation.

Crack SNAP

Tip 1 General English: this section has questions that test one’s verbal ability, reading and comprehension skills. The questions are based on analogies, synonyms, antonyms, match the list, idioms, one word for many, fill in the blanks, identifying the correct and incorrect sentences, converting from active to passive voice, identifying sentences with similar meanings, punctuation, spellings, jumbled paragraphs and scrambled sentences. In a nut shell this section tests the applicant’s basic concepts of grammar.

a)      Grammar: A useful tool to improve your language skills is by referring to Wren & Martin. This book is a perfect guide for improving your grammar, as well as your comprehension skills because it has exercises and examples for each topic. It also comes with a key that you can use to verify if your answers are correct.

b)      Reading and Comprehension: you need to grab a copy of the Wren & Martin as soon as possible because it has very good examples for improving your comprehension skills. It has sample passages that contain questions on most of the aspects covered in the English section. A useful tool is to develop a habit of reading as this is one of the best ways to improve one’s language skills and vocabulary. When one comes across a word that they do not understand it is essential that students make it a point to open a dictionary, therefore ensure that you have a dictionary nearby whenever you read something.

Tip 2. Analytical & Logical Reasoning: the reasoning section consists of questions based on logical, analytical and critical reasoning therefore they are framed accordingly. So whenever you read a passage don’t forget to put on your thinking cap and ask your W/ H (How, Why, What) questions as often as possible. Practice difficult reasoning puzzles from mock papers and books on reasoning. Solving puzzles from popular puzzle books available in bookstores will also help. Focus on lengthy puzzles on distribution involving lots of variables.

Tip 3. Quantitative Ability, Data Interpretation, Data Sufficiency: this section mainly consists of questions that use bar graphs, line graphs, case lets (data given in the form of paragraphs requires applicants to extract the information provided to establish a relationship between the data given), tables, pie charts or circle graphs etc. to interpret data. Similarly the questions are based on the data that is interpreted, so break up the question and note down the information that is given to you.

 Tip 4. General Awareness: reading newspapers and watching educational channels will boost your general knowledge. A good start to improve your knowledge of India to crack this section is by visiting www.india.gov.in  which has information about the latest happenings in the country. Apart from this you can even read past issues of business magazines (from January 2012) and pay attention to the main events in the corporate world. Having information about organizations /associations like the UN and its associate agencies such as ASEAN, SAARC, NATO, BRICS etc. can help you to clear this section. A good knowledge about the stocks and GK questions like countries, capitals, currencies, inventions and discoveries in science can be very helpful.

Tip 5. Group Discussions:  try to be loud and aggressive in an appropriate manner, if you need to get your point across. If students are unclear about the topic then it is advisable to wait for someone else to begin. Try and summarize the points that have been discussed at regular intervals this will bring the group back on track.

Tip 6. Topics to focus on: for Analytical & Logical Reasoning students can focus on are Matrix, arrangement, Linear Arrangement, Venn diagram, Puzzles, Family Tree, Visual Reasoning, Critical Reasoning and Syllogisms. For Quantitative Ability, Data Interpretation, Data Sufficiency sections students can focus on SD, Average, Probability, Divisibility, Numbers, Equations, Functions, Simple Interest, Geometry, PnC, Statistics, Counting, Tables, Line Charts, Pie Charts and Data Sufficiency.

Tip 7. Practice: it is essential that students refer to previous years question papers and rely on mock tests, as this will make them familiar with the paper pattern and will give them an idea about the type of questions asked. Thus, students are better prepared for the examination.  Practice different topics in grammar that are covered in the Wren & Martin. This will strengthen your grammar skills and reduce the silly mistakes often made by students. Several websites have mock tests that can assist students in there preparation so students should take these mock tests as well.

Tip 8. Join Coaching classes: this will ensure that students practice regularly and are better prepared because they can resolve the queries that they might have about a particular topic. Students should not hesitate to clarify their doubts from the professor as this lets the instructor know if the pupil understands the matter taught.

Tip 9. Health Matters: it is important to ensure that you get enough rest, eat a balanced diet and most importantly exercise. It is important that you sleep in time, eat properly and exercise, if you wish to perform well in the examinations because both the body and the mind need to rest to function to its maximum potential.

Tip 10. Avoid Procrastination: it is important that students don’t put off tasks that need to be completed because certain tasks need to be done on time. Avoiding these tasks or engaging in irrelevant tasks doesn’t help as sooner or later you end up doing them in a haphazard way. Which leads to the tasks not done well and students don’t learn; what they need to while doing the task.

By following these simple tips clearing the SNAP will be easier and more fun, as students are better prepared for the examination.

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Career in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and IT

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Computer courses have recently gained popularity due to the wide range of careers available within its discipline. Along with its popularity there has been a lot of confusion as to which course to opt for and what is the difference between the disciplines. If you have related to any of these statements, then let’s address the confusions faced by most computer aspirants.

First and foremost let’s identify the various disciplines that are linked to computers:

Here are the various disciplines in brief:

Career in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and ITComputer Science (C.S.): the topic studied under computer science consists of the theory behind the programming, programming to the development of computing solutions. The work of computer scientists can be divided into 3 categories namely a) designing and building software, b) developing effective ways to solve computing problems that may crop up such as storing information in databases, sending data over networks or providing new approaches to security problems and c) devising new and better ways of using computers and addressing particular challenges in areas such as robotics, computer vision or digital forensics. Most computer science programs require some mathematical background of algorithms, data structures, complexity theory, all the way down to learning what makes an operating system work.

Computer Engineering (C.E.): this field deals with the development of systems for software, hardware as well as communications. Students typically study the design of digital hardware and software systems along with communications systems. Apart from this devices and computers that contain computers are also studied. Programming is also studied with focus on digital devices and their interfaces with users and other devices. An important area studied, is the development of embedded systems. Devices such as cell phones, digital audio players, digital video recorders, alarm systems, x-ray machines and laser-surgical tools all require the integration of hardware and embedded software that are the result of computer engineering. The activities that a Computer Hardware engineers engage in are research, design, develop, test and to oversee the installation of computer hardware and supervise its manufacture and installation. Hardware refers to computer chips, circuit boards, computer systems, microchips, routers, video cards and equipment such as keyboards, modems, and printers. The work of computer hardware engineers is very similar to that of electronics engineers, but, unlike electronics engineers, computer hardware engineers work exclusively with computers and computer-related equipment.

Information Technology: can be defined as the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems. In simple words information technology deals with the usage of computers by the employees in a company. The main focus of this is to attend to the issues faced by the users while working with computers or issues with the shared networking processes such as the LAN (Local Area Network) and the WAN (Wide Area Network) The responsibilities of those working in this field include network administration, software development and installation, the planning and management of an organization’s technology life cycle, by which hardware and software is maintained, upgraded and replaced as and when required.

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Parenting Tips for Exam Stress

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The Examination season can be stressful for both Parents and Students alike. This is because most parents are worried about their child’s performance; as for students, the stress is about fulfilling the expectations of their parents. Nevertheless the entire process is stressful. Fortunately there are a few tips that have proved to be effective in dealing with Examination Stress. These tips can be categorized into 2 namely Tips Before the Examination and Last Minute Tips.

Tips Before the Examination:

Exam Stress – Tips for Parents and Students | Reduce Exam StressTip 1. Reduce Pressure: Parents should be careful not to place unnecessary pressure on their children as most students place pressure on themselves to meet the expectations of parents. Parents should set reasonable expectations on children by bearing in mind the difficulty level of the subject, the capability of their child alone and the given circumstances of the child. Parents should remember that excessive pressure can affect their child’s performance as they may begin to think less of themselves. If students are unable to clear the subject then they are likely to think that there is nothing left. This is not what you want your child to think as they can always give the examination again and it isn’t the end.

Tip 2. Give Support: this is the most important aspect that we parents tend to overlook because we are so focused on achieving good grades that support tends to take a back seat. This is the key to the success of any child. Having a supportive environment at home and people to count on is very important for success. Parents can show that they are supportive by creating a study plan with the child.

Tip 3. Encourage: encouraging children is another important aspect. Parents should let their children know that no matter what the outcome is you will be there for them if they need you.

Tip 4. Relieve Stress: parents can do their part in relieving the stress by engaging in a relaxing conversation with their child over meals instead of watching the Television. Parents can even find out how their child is doing through such conversations.

Tip 5. Be Involved: parents can help their children in their preparation by giving study tips that they can follow. From casual conversations parents will be aware of their child’s emotions and the the methods used to study. This will help parents to know if the methods used are faulty and they can then suggest tips that may help in reducing stress. Parents can also take their child’s studies to monitor their progress.

Tip 6. Heath Matters: parents can ensure that their child eats a Balanced Diet, gets enough of rest and exercise. Children usually need 8 to 10 hours of sleep so parents can ensure that the child gets enough rest. Apart from this exercise is very important because just as the mind needs rest even the body needs rest and exercise refreshes both the mind and the body. Parents should ensure that the child takes breaks while studying as this will help the child to remember what has been studied.

Tip 7. Stay Calm: parents should remain calm as much as they can instead of worrying all the time because this stresses out the child and they tend to get worried and nervous as well.

Tip 8. Chores: parents should not worry too much about the cleanliness of the child’s room or on the chores that the child has not completed. They should ensure that the room is not cluttered as this can affect the child’s preparation.

Tip 9. Stable Environment: parents should ensure that the environment at home is stable as this will help the child to study better.

Tip 10. Space to Study: parents should ensure that the child has a properly lit room with enough of ventilation for the child to study in. this generates a positive atmosphere for the child to study in. The paint used in the child’s study should be one that is fresh and natural but that encourages study so an orange colour is a big no, no.

Tip 11. Keep Distractions Away: Parents should keep all distractions away from the child such as the television, cell phones and limit the amount of time the child spends at Social Networking Sites. The Internet while an educational resource can also serve as a distraction hence monitoring what the child researches for on the Internet is important.

Tip 12. Educate yourself: parents should be aware of the various memory improvement techniques that are available and the learning style of their child. This will give parents tips to improve the memory of their child, thus ensuring that the matter is studied well. If parents are aware of both these aspects then they will be able to help their child effectively.

Last Minute Tips:

Tip 1. Know the Topics to be Studied: parents should remind their children not to study topics that they haven’t studied just before the examination but instead they should revise the topics they have already studied.

Tip 2. Give Support: giving biscuits or brewing a cup of Hot Coffee or Chocolate (preferable) for your child if they are studying late in the night is also supportive. It reassures them that you care and that they are not alone.

Tip 3. Revise and Repeat: parents should ensure that their children revise and repeat the topics studied as this will ensure that the matter is learnt well which automatically reduces the stress of the child.

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Study Tips for Learning Styles

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Learning styles are nothing but the way in which individuals store information or knowledge to recall at a later point in time. There are 3 basic learning styles namely Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. On a general note most individuals usually use a combination of these that range from 2 to 3 styles respectively. Based on the basic styles are tips to aid these individuals while learning.

learning-styles

The Visual Learner (eyes; imagery): if you are visual learners then you probably learn best when you see the information so you need to make the maximum use of diagrams, images, associations, graphs, charts, presentations, maps and flash cards will be a good start.

Tip 1. Use Diagrams: to memorize biological information or descriptive material such as the parts of the brain, neurons, body or the solar system or machine parts try to visualize the information along with the diagram while positioning them in their respective places.

Tip 2. Use Images: if one needs to remember the path to the laboratory take mental pictures of the path taken to reach the laboratory.

Tip 3. Use memory improvement techniques: namely mnemonics such as rhymes, acronyms, acoustics, chunking, method of loci etc. To remember information such as the days in a month one can make use of the popular rhyme, form an acronym for the colours of the rainbow, form acoustics to remember the notes on a guitar, to remember a phone no. 9867534219 divide it in to smaller manageable chunks; visualize the items of a grocery list while placing them along a familiar route etc. are some examples of these techniques.

Tip 4. Form Associations: students can relate to the matter studied by associating the points to information that they have already learnt.

Tip 5. Use Graphs: students can make use of graphs such as line or bar graphs to recall statistical data as and when required.

Tip 6. Use Charts: create flow charts to remember topics that have processes involved in them. Or students can also use hierarchical.

Tip 7. Use Flash cards: flash cards come in handy when you have to remember information or details about famous personalities.

More Tips:

  • Write down quotes, lists, etc.
  • Look at speakers while they are talking to stay focused.
  • Work in a quiet place.
  • Study both by yourself and in study groups.
  • Take a lot of notes, and leave extra space to add missed details.
  • Copy over your notes. Rewriting helps recall.
  • Use color to highlight main ideas in your notes, textbooks, handouts, etc.
  • Write notes in the margins of your textbooks, documenting questions, etc.
  • Before reading an assignment, set a specific study goal, and write it down. Post it in front of you. Example, “From 7:00 to 7:30, I will read the first chapter.”
  • Preview a chapter before reading it by first looking at all the pictures, section headings, etc.
  • Sit toward the front of the class, if possible.
  • Write vocabulary words on index cards with short definitions on the back. Look through them frequently, write out the definitions again, and check yourself.

Auditory Learners (ears, hearing): these individuals learn better while listening. Therefore these individuals memorize matter during lectures and via recordings of the matter that has to be studied.

Tip 1. Lectures: while the topic is taught in class you need to pay careful attention to what is taught.

Tip 2. Recordings: ask permission to record the lectures and replay them when studying.

Tip 3. Highlight Topics: use highlighting markers to highlight important topics or students can also use pencils to highlight the important topics by underlining them.

More Tips:

  • Study with a friend so that you can talk out loud and hear the information.
  • Recite quotes, lists, dates, etc., out loud.
  • Ask your instructor if you can turn in a tape or give an oral report instead of written work.
  • Read or summarize your class notes onto a tape, or ask permission to tape record classroom lectures. Listen to the tapes three times in preparation for a test.
  • Before reading a chapter, look at all the pictures and headings, and then verbalize what you think the chapter will be about.
  • After you read a section, summarize it out loud.
  • Have a friend quiz you on vocabulary words; recite the word and definition out loud frequently.
  • Before beginning an assignment, set a specific study goal, and say it out loud. Example, “First, I will read my history chapter.”
  • Read aloud whenever possible. In a quiet library, try hearing the words in your head as you read.
  • When doing complicated math problems, use graph paper (or use regular lined paper sideways) to help alignment.
  • Use color and graphic symbols to highlight main ideas in your notes, textbooks, handouts, etc.

Kinesthetic Learner (physical touch and movement, learning by doing): these individuals usually learn better by movement and by doing the task.

Tip 1. Pace Around: by pacing around you will learn better.

Tip 2. Practical Exposure: these individuals need to feel the object or need to do the task via exposure therefore they need to get practical exposure if possible.

More Tips:

  • To memorize, pace or walk around while reciting to yourself, looking at a list, or
  • studying index cards.
  • When reading a textbook chapter, first look at the pictures, then read the summary or end-of-chapter questions, then look over the section headings and bold-faced words.
  • Get a feel for the whole chapter by reading the end selection first, and then work your way to the front of the chapter.
  • If you need to fidget when in class, try squeezing a Nerf ball or crossing your legs and bouncing the foot that is off the floor. Experiment with other ways of moving; just be sure you are not making noise or disturbing others.
  • You may not study best at a desk, so when you are at home, try studying while lying on your stomach or back. Also, try studying with music in the background.
  • If you have a stationary bicycle, try reading while pedaling.
  • Use a bright piece of construction paper in your favorite color as a desk blotter. This is called color grounding, and it can help you focus.
  • When studying, take breaks as frequently as you need. Just be sure to get right back to the task. A reasonable schedule is 20-30 minutes of studying and 5 minutes of break.
  • When trying to memorize information, close your eyes and write the information in the air, on a desk, or in the carpet with your finger. Picture the words in your head as you do this. If possible, hear them too. Later, when trying to recall this information, close your eyes, and see it with your mind’s eye, hear it in your head.
  • Move around as you study different topics. That way, you can picture your bed and think of one thing and your desk to think of another.
  • Organize information into charts, graphs, and models. Constructing these physical
  • representations will give you hands-on experience with abstract concepts.
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Career Prospects in Computers

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The advancement in technology has resulted in the booming of several I. T. Companies that cater to the needs of such companies at a National level and on a global level. The popular courses in today’s day and age are Engineering, Medicine related, Commerce, Arts, Social Sciences and Computers being one such course. I’m sure that most of us are aware of these courses and a few of us have even decided to pursue a career in Computers due to the high pay packages. But can we honestly say that we are aware of the various job prospects that are available? For computer aspirants having all the possible information about the different career prospects is a must. Therefore lets find out the different career prospects.

There are several job opportunities in the field of Computers, to name a few artificial intelligence, computer design and engineering, graphic design, website development and maintenance, information technology and software development. Careers in computers can be classified into two broad areas namely Software (deals with developing programs in the language of computers such as JAVA, C++, applications such as M.S. Office and their usage) and Hardware (deals with the manufacturing and developing of hardware for computers such as chips, micro chips, keyboard, mother board, cabinet, mouse etc.)

Software:

Career Options in ComputersComputer Software Engineers: these individuals develop and design software such as business programs, operating systems, applications and even computer games. They apply principles of computer science and mathematics when designing the software, applications and computer games. The other reasons for developing softwares is to cater to the needs of businesses and individuals. The minimum qualification required is a bachelors degree in Computer Science, Engineering or mathematics. Other career prospects that have a bearing on this profession are Computer Applications Software Engineers and Computer Systems Software Engineers.

Computer Programmers: these individuals are in charge of writing programs that Computer Software Engineers design. They design, develop, test and implement software applications that run on computer systems. These individuals use a variety of software development tools such as programming languages and frameworks to create applications designed by Computer Software Engineers. The minimum qualification required is a bachelors degree although there are some companies that hire individuals with certifications alone. But if one wishes to grow then they should posses at least a graduate degree. Computer programmers need to constantly under go training to keep themselves updated with the changing technology. Apart from this the constant training increases the prospects of growth as well.

Computer System Analysts: the role of these individuals is very important from the prospect of a business or a corporation. The job of a system analyst involves the creating and designing of computer systems or reformatting and improving an already existing system. An applicant aspiring for a career as a Computer System Analyst is required to have a minimum qualification of a bachelors degree. Other branches that arise are Systems Engineers or Systems Architects. These individuals are also in charge of creating documentation and training to lay down policies and procedures to follow when using the created computer systems.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) and User Experience Designers: it is common knowledge that all computer systems and Applications require a GUI so that computer users can operate computer software and systems. Therefore these individuals create the application and system screens for the same. To provide a user friendly experience for users these individuals make use of their creativity, marketing and technical skills for the same.

Hardware:

Career options in computerComputer Hardware Engineers: these individuals research, develop, design and test computer-related equipment for the purpose of scientific, military, industrial and commercial use. The qualification required to work as a Hardware Engineer are a bachelor’s degree in computer science, engineering or mathematics is sufficient.

Network Administrator / Network Support Technician / System Administrators / Network Systems and Data Communication Analyst’s: Most computer systems run on a network which comprise of a LAN (Local Area Network) or a WAN (Wide Area Network). These profiles have individuals who are network architects and engineers. These Architects and Engineers design, support, repair and maintain the computer networks. Apart from this they also ensure that all the information that is transmitted and stored on computer networks is secure.

Database Administrator: is responsible for the implementation of changes that may be required for the database. Apart from this they monitor and implement security measures if required for the safety of the computer databases. The minimum requirement is a bachelors degree.

Computer Support Specialist / Tech Support Administrators: the profile of such individuals consists of providing assistance and support to companies and people who need information technology (IT) advice. They may also provide assistance to computer users in relation to troubleshoot hardware and software problems, design, install and maintain corporate computer networks and handle network security concerns. Some companies hire individuals with a certification alone but most require at least a Bachelors degree but it is preferable to have a Masters degree for better growth prospects.

Information Technology: is basically technology that allows users to transmit and store information. Phones, computers, faxes and the Internet are different kinds of information technology. The duties of Information technology specialists and administrators comprise of planning, implementing and troubleshooting information technology systems for businesses as and when required. Web developers, database administrators and IT training consultants all come under the IT field.

Project management and Information Technology (IT) Business Analyst: a career in these profiles involves the technical and business aspect of computer-related careers. These individuals use technical, financial and business skills to ensure that the computer-related projects and services are completed on time and meet the organization’s needs within a specified financial budget. IT management is one of the most popular computer careers that trains these individuals to develop and manage information systems that most businesses rely on.

Website developers and Graphic Designers: the main role of these individuals is to handle the technical side of website creation and develop various applications for websites. These individuals use their creativity and artistic abilities, along with their knowledge of computers, to produce on screen graphics, animations and Web pages.

Artificial Intelligence: these profiles comprise of Computer professionals that work in artificial intelligence. These individuals create computers that simulate human learning and reasoning abilities which may be employed by security companies, the government or the space program. This field trains the robots “to think”.

Computer Scientist: these individuals usually work for manufacturers and system design firms. They conduct research that leads to the development of new types of computer hardware. The job profile consists of identifying a problem or challenge that is related to computers and then they work towards finding a solution to the problem. They tend to develop a theory or a possible solution to the problem and derive a method to test their theory. After all these requirements are satisfied they then conduct their tests, measure the results and conclude with a written report explaining their findings. These individuals may develop virtual reality systems and video game units, design computers that power robots used to perform automated tasks in factories or to complete tasks in places people cannot easily travel, such as in space or at large depths in the ocean are some of the things that scientists may work on.

These are some of the various career options available to computer aspirants. Nevertheless it is advisable to speak to professionals to find out more about these careers and the job profile.

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Career Options in Teaching

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Teaching is a privilege as it consists of grooming children into amazing individuals with values and principles. This profession is considered to be a learning one because instructors are constantly learning from each other and from their students as well. Teachers are aware of the changing trends because every year new batches of students arrive bringing with them new views and ideas of their age. Apart from this it also helps the teachers to remain young because they interact with students.

The Job opportunities available are Pre – Primary Teachers, Primary Teachers, Secondary and Senior Secondary Teachers, Lecturers, Professors and Special Educators.

Career options in teachingThe Pre – Primary Teacher:the eligibility criteria for Primary school teachers is 10 + 2 Pass with at least 50% marks aggregate. Although the academic records are important, personal skills and aptitude are equally important. There are a number of vocational training centers which conduct training for preschool teachers. There are Montessori Teacher training schools which give training for pre-school education.

The Primary Teacher: The minimum requirement for a primary school teacher is a graduate with a nursery training certificate / diploma or degree. The candidate must be a graduate or a post graduate with at least 55% marks aggregate and holding either a diploma or degree in education or teaching. The candidate should have studied at least one of the teaching subjects during graduation. Normally candidates who have a Bachelor in education ( B.Ed.) start their career as primary school teachers and gradually move up. Candidates who are graduates in home science can also be selected for primary school teachers.

The Secondary and Senior Secondary Teacher:The eligibility criteria for the post of a Secondary Teacher requires the candidate to have a post graduate degree in the subject and a Bachelors in education ( B.Ed. ) degree in the course of interest. The B.Ed. course prepares teachers to teach in secondary schools. Teachers who have a B.Ed. degree with a graduation in the field of choice are called Trained Graduate Teachers. Candidate with teaching experience are preferred. There are several colleges that conduct a 1 year B.Ed. Course. Some universities also offer correspondence courses for training teachers already in service.

Lecturers:For the post of a lecturer in Arts, Commerce, Sciences, Social Sciences, Law, Foreign Languages and Physical Education the candidate needs to have a post graduate degree in the relevant subject from an Indian University, University or an equivalent degree from a foreign University, with at least 55% marks. To become a lecturer, individuals need to apply for the Eligibility test for lecturers (NET) which is conducted by UGC, CSIR or similar tests accredited by the UGC. Lecturers who have completed 8 years of service after regular appointment and have participated in at least two refresher courses of approved duration are appointed in the senior scale. They should also have a consistently satisfactory performance appraisal report.

Professor:if one wishes to become a professor then one must have passed a Masters Degree examination from a recognized university in the subject you would like to teach. One must have scored a minimum of 55% marks in the master’s degree examination. The candidates must have qualified National Eligibility Test for Lectureship which is conducted by the University Grant Commission. Must have done exceptionally well in the Bachelors as well as Masters level in the relevant discipline. Candidates should have minimum 3 years of experience as an Assistant Professor in a recognized university or College. These individuals must hold a PhD degree in the relevant discipline.

Special Education:For a Diploma in Special Education the minimum requirement is 10+2. Special educators usually deal with special children such as the blind, deaf, dumb, children with learning disorders, mentally challenged individuals and differently abled students. There are separate institutions to train special teachers such as teachers of the blind, deaf and dumb, mentally retarded, art, craft, music and physical education. A few institutes are listed below namely the Regional Institutes of Education at Mysore, Bhubaneswar, Cuttack and Ajmer are some institutes run by the NCERT. They offer a basic Graduate Degree in Art or Science along with a B.Ed. This is a four year course after school. Shivaji University, Kolhapur conducts a BA, B.Ed. course of four years duration. Barkatullah University, Bhopal conducts a BA, B.Ed. and also B.Com., B.Ed. course of four years duration.

These are some of the various options available in the teaching profession.

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What are Life Skills?

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How often have you come across the term life skills? Can you honestly say that you completely understand the term? Well if you have identified with these statements then you have come to the right place.

Simply speaking life skills are behaviors used in an appropriate and responsible manner, when dealing with personal affairs. Life skills may be defined as, “a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life” (Wikipedia). There is no specific list of life skills but some are listed below based on the areas of focus:

These are skills that cater to 4 main areas namely Heart, Hands, Health and Head or the 4 Hs.

life skills modelHeart: comprises of 2 areas namely Relating and Caring. The qualities that come under Relating are Accepting Differences (individuals should learn to accept each other irrespective of the differences), Conflict Resolution (people should learn effective ways to resolve the conflicts between groups and individuals), Social Skills ( people should learn and practice effective social skills), Corporation (individuals should learn to corporate with each other) and Communication (communicating effectively is a must) while for caring the attributes are Nurturing Relationships (relationships that are formed should be cherished), Sharing (it helps individuals to learn things as well), Empathy and concern for others (displaying empathy and concern gives individuals the opportunity to help others in need).

Hands: contains 2 areas Giving and Working. The attributes are Community Service Volunteering, Leadership, Responsible Citizenship and Contributions to Group Effort come under Giving while Marketable Skills, Team work and Self Motivation comprise of the Working area. If you notice both these areas focus mainly on contributing back to society.

Health: is divided into 2 categories such as Living and Being. The qualities that come under the heading Living are Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stress Management, Diseases Prevention and Personal Safety while Self Esteem, Self Responsibility, Character, Managing Feelings and Self – Discipline comprise of the Being area. These areas focus on living a Healthy lifestyle which enhances ones standard of living thus the individual remains healthy.

Head: comprises of 2 categories namely Managing and Thinking. The attributes that come under Managing are Resiliency (perseverance is an important quality to have as it makes you strong and keep you going until you achieve what you set out to do), Keeping Records (here accuracy in the tasks completed helps individuals to find the information they are looking for fast), Wise use of Resources (merely using resources is good but the resources should be used wisely), Planning or Organizing (without having a plan to follow all the work that has to be done may not get done in time) and Goal Setting (having a goal in life gives one a sense of direction that is why goal are so important to have) while the thinking area consists of qualities such as Service Learning, Critical Learning, Problem Solving, Decision Making and Learning to learn. This category focuses on developing an attitude of learning in everything one does. Apart from this it also stresses on effective Problem solving and Decision Making because these are very important skills that one needs to develop. These are important skills because as individuals go through life they usually have to make important decisions that will impact ones life especially if the decisions made are faulty. In life individuals also come across various problems the need to be dealt with effectively, that is when having problem solving skills comes in handy.

Therefore developing these skills becomes an essential aspect in ones life, if ones wishes to be successful. So let us all start developing theses skills and make a difference to each others lives. And in doing so we can all do our part in making a difference in the world.

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